Side-delivery rakes were perfected in the 1890s. By the 1920s they had evolved to the design shown here. This Case rake, one of the company’s last horse-drawn side-delivery rakes, was designed to be used with horses or a tractor.
Dump rakes such as this one were generally drawn by a team of horses and consisted of a series of teeth set 4 inches apart between two wheels. A lever was used to dump the hay at a given spot as horses pulled the rake across the field. That allowed the farmer to gather and dump the hay in rows so two men (one on each side) could fork it onto a wagon after the hay had cured.
The Walter A. Wood hay rake.
Side-delivery rakes were a big improvement over the dump rake.
Revolving horse-rake for two horses dating to the 1860s, from George A. Martin’s Farm Appliances: A Practical Manual. “The shafts are intended to be hooked to the hind axle of a naked wagon,” Martin wrote, “and thus worked by a team, the driver riding on the wagon and operating the lever whenever the rake is full.”
The Beck side-delivery rake, 1893.
The C.B.&Q. side-delivery rake, late 1880s.
J.L. Beightle’s hay rake and loader, patented Nov. 23, 1880.
Harvester rake patented by Cyrenus Wheeler Jr. April 7, 1868.
Hay tedders lifted hay for curing but did not form windrows.
From an 1898 catalog: Symm’s patent hay and grain caps “thoroughly waterproof wood fibre caps … that will last a lifetime. $6 a dozen.” The caps were said to produce superior hay, keeping rain and dew from the hay, and protecting it from sunlight during the day while retaining heat overnight.
The Dain loader and side-delivery rake.
Ellwood’s “Veteran” self-dump rake. Note the amputee (presumably a Civil War veteran) shown in the illustration. As wounded soldiers returned to the farm, farm equipment manufacturers responded by promoting their equipment as being so easy to use, even amputees could operate it.
J.W. Foust’s machine for loading hay, patent pending in 1862.