How Do I Run The Darn Thing?

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Route 1, Box 54, Princeton, Wisconsin 54968

One can almost hear a prospective thresherman saying, 'Now that I own it, how do I run the darn thing?' Not all who purchased threshing machinery were this naive. In fact, many were very sophisticated mechanics and engineers. A large number of these learned at the knee, so to speak, of a neighbor, uncle, brother or father. A few were out on their own while still in their teens.

Jim Rabas Sr. purchased his first 75 HP Minneapolis engine and separator when only 17 years of age1. Ernest Danielson reported, 'I started threshing when I was sixteen years of age. It was hard for Dad to get help, so Dad put me to hauling water for the steam engine. I hauled water for two years, then Dad put me to running the engine.2 Likewise Victor Gallagher learned from his father. He claimed to have always been a threshing and steam enthusiast. 'I started by helping my father, Frank Gallagher, run his 32 x 56 Huber Superior separator and 20 HP double cylinder Reeves (1919) when I was about 15 or 16 years old.'3 Orville Hendricks began firing a Keck-Gonnerman engine when only eight, which prompted his mother to remark that he cut his teeth on the draw bar. About the same time he tended the blower. Soon he was elevated to water boy, a job that he recalled nearly killed him. One day the regular engineer did not show up for work and Orville took over although he was only fourteen. He admitted, 'I had to lie a little bit, but I got a steam operator's license when I was seventeen.'4

In a recent letter, John Steinkuhl of Evansville, Indiana related how he learned to operate a steam engine. 'Better than a book or pamphlet is directly working with the engineer. We three Steinkuhl brothers, George, Pat and John, were mechanically inclined. North of Darmstadt and Evansville, Indiana and in Gibson County, at the age of 17 years, Joe Broerman had me start hauling water. I helped with the engine and at times Broerman let me run it with his supervision during the whole threshing season. This is how I pretty well learned the procedure. Afterwards my brother George bought an 18 HP Keck-Gonnerman from Charles Bossee. By this time I knew enough about running the engine, and shredded corn at Elberfeld.'5

There were those who possessed insufficient knowledge to manage the machinery they had purchased, and they did not have someone at hand to teach them. Into this category fell those who had been enamored by the sight, sound and fury of the threshing scene, and who as a consequence became easy targets for accomplished salesmen. Perhaps it happened at a county fair where the beauty of the beast and the thought of the prestige of ownership overwhelmed otherwise sensible persons. Some of these men wound up with a new or used rig, probably a mortgage on their real property and a series of notes running as long as three years at six percent interest, or more. Only after their name was on the dotted line did many realize that they did not know how to run a steam engine or a grain separator.

There were several sources of help. By using a combination of these there was no reason why one could not become a successful thresherman.

The sales representative of the manufacturing concern was one such source. Most likely he would come by after delivery to instruct the purchaser in the finer points of engineering and separator management. In addition, at the time of the sale, the thresherman probably received a manual that he was supposed to study most diligently.

The nature of these manuals apparently varied greatly. Some were quite brief. On the other hand, The Case Steam Engine Manual (copyrighted in 1899, 1911, 1915, and 1922) ran 69 pages and encompassed such subjects as fitting up and starting a new engine, feed water, firing, lubricating and adjusting bearings, handling the engine, the valve gear, the boiler, traction gearing and a special section on the compound engine. This manual is still read by those devoted to the steam hobby.

Case also distributed James H. Stephenson's Farm Engines and How to Run Them: The Science of Successful Threshing.6 This book went beyond the aforementioned in as much as it had a section on how to operate a separator.

Around 1923 Advance-Rumely published Instructions For Operating The Rumely Ideal Separator No. 23: Directions For Setting Up and Operating the Rumely Ideal Separator. This readable manual of about 50 pages provided instructions on such matters as unloading the separator from a railroad car, setting and starting the separator, general adjustment of sieves, belting, taking care of the machine and a section on how to handle a threshing crew. Among the most interesting sections is the one on adjusting sieves, which addresses the problem of dry brittle straw as in semi-arid parts of the country. 'This condition is very hard to overcome as the straw cuts up in the cylinder and sifts down through the grates and openings in the straw racks, loading the chaffer and making it difficult to get the grain through and tends to carry it over.'' To correct this the cylinder speed was reduced as much as possible but still thresh out the kernels. After suggesting speeds for particular separators it noted that, 'It will help to uncouple the lifting fingers and tie them down, or some sets of lifting fingers may be uncoupled. It will also help to nail strips lengthwise on the upper side of the straw rack thus making the racks finer.' These recommendations were followed by several paragraphs on threshing oats, barley, rye, red top grass, timothy, flax and broom grass.

The section on handling the threshing crew held numerous practical suggestions. The spike pitchers were to pull the drawbar pin as soon as the separator was leveled and then set up the feeder carrier. By this time the engineer should have the engine lined up. While this was taking place the separator man should turn the wind stacker into position and reset the weigher. Finally, the spike pitchers should place a canvas beneath the front of the separator to catch any grain that might fall. Those in charge of the grain wagon were expected to block the wheels to prevent the team from backing it into the machine.

While Case and Advance-Rumely supplied their customers with rather extensive manuals, some companies did not. Keck-Gonnerman (c.1925) sent out only about six pages, four on operating the engine, one on the thresher and a half page of 'Directions For Operating U.S. Injectors.' Even if one had memorized every word in this short manual it is highly unlikely he would have qualified as an expert thresherman. So, where else might a diligent student turn?

First, there was the company representative who could be called upon in a pinch. But often the factory or district branch office was hundreds of miles away. In that case one might turn to a local person who owned and operated threshing machinery, and had earned a reputation for his ex-pertness. Herman Menke of Elberfeld, Indiana was such a man. So was the late Roy Boatman who lived in the Lawrenceville, Illinois area. Once Roy received a frantic call from the owner of a double cylinder engine who could not keep up steam. Upon arrival, he asked the engineer to start the engine. Immediately it was apparent that only one cylinder was functioning. Roy told the engineer to stop the engine and opened the smoke door. He found that one exhaust pipe had fallen down and was exhausting back through the flues. Roy tied up the pipe with some baling wire and the engine worked perfectly.

Still another source was magazines. One could subscribe to The Threshermen's Review, The Canadian Thresherman or The American Thresherman. Probably the best known journal of the period was The American Thresherman, copies of which are still available in several libraries. It ran a question and answer department under the editorship of Professor P.S. Rose. Questions were solicited from thresher-men, from young men starting out, old men who had spent practically a lifetime in threshing, even representatives from great threshing houses. Men from all sections of the country not only wrote in, they awaited answers to most every question imaginable. Subsequently these were published in booklet form as Traction Engine Troubles.7 In 1960 it was republished by The Iron Men Album.8

Moreover The American Thresherman, between August 1906 and September 1916, provided over a hundred lessons covering first the steam engine, then the grain separator and finally the gas engine. Professor P.S. Rose of the North Dakota Agricultural College had prepared these lessons for his lectures to farm engineering students. In 1982 the Stemgas Publishing Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania reprinted that portion of the lessons pertaining to the steam traction engine.9

Rose may well have been the most influential academic figure in the history of steam traction engineering. He was born on July 13, 1872 in Allendale Center, Michigan, and as a youth he took a man's place on the crosscut saw and was known as a 'seasoned ox teamster.' He had a sketchy elementary education and attended high school for only 12 weeks, but he was intelligent and determined and he persuaded Michigan State University to admit him. Here he cleared up his educational deficiencies and went on to earn a degree in mechanical engineering when he was 27 years old.

He began teaching at the North Dakota Agricultural College in 1900. In 1909 he became associate editor of The American Threshermen and editor of Gas Review. Eventually he was made editor of that popular magazine, The Country Gentleman. He was a charter member of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers and was the recipient of its prestigious Cyrus Hall McCormick Medal in 1939. An obituary in The Journal of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers read in part: 'During his editorial career he emphasized the engineering side of farming. He campaigned for soil erosion control and advocated lespedeza when there was not a single acre of it in all America. He pointed his pen against some of the scourges of human health when their names were hardly whispered and saw their control become a national objective.'10

Rose's lessons, or Steam Engine Guide, covered such subjects as power of steam, types of boilers, kinds of materials and boiler details, boiler feeders and safety appliances, fuels, firing and boiler horse power, types of engines, the plain slide valve, traction engine reversing gearing, directions for setting the valve, governors, lubricants and lubricators, gearing, belting, and care of the engine. The reader will find this publication very informative and equally sobering.

At the outset Rose wished to establish a due respect for the power contained in a fully steamed traction engine boiler. He began by stating that the boiler is that part of a steam engine that 'gives the most trouble, the part that wears out first, and the most dangerous part.' He calculated that a 25 HP boiler at 150 pounds of pressure could, if all the power were applied as powder in a rifle, shoot a ball weighing one pound vertically into the air for a distance of approximately 7,500 miles. Yes! Miles! If the same power were applied to the total weight of a 25 horse engine it could lift it 1,735 feet or almost one third of a mile into the air. Rose recognized that all beginners were nervous when working about such power but when confidence arrived carelessness and even recklessness sometimes accompanied it. He was equally aware of the inefficiency of the steam traction engine which he judged lost 94 pounds out of every 100 pounds of coal because of heat radiation, incomplete combustion, friction, and greatest of all, the heat that escaped with the exhaust steam. He recognized that some gas engines of the time showed under test 30 percent efficiency. Good conservationist that he was, he warned, 'Both, however, are wasteful and are depleting the world's fuel supply at an alarming rate.'

In a few words, Rose's Steam Engine Guide was intended as a practical book for the men in the field.

The very year that Rose began his series of lessons, The Threshermen's Review issued G.F. Conner's Science of Threshing.11 It was well written and covered a range of topics. One major advantage of the Conner book was that it dealt with both the steam traction engine and the grain separator. Undoubtedly some threshermen read and studied it during the comparatively quiet winter months and took it along on the summer's run.

Beyond factory representatives, local experts, manuals, and articles in magazines a number of books were published for those who wished to become certified engineers, or who simply wanted to expand their knowledge so that they could feel more comfortable while at the same time running their rigs more efficiently and profitably.

Even before The American Thresherman began its question and answer department or launched Rose's series of lessons, a book was published that, from a historical viewpoint, certainly was one of the most significant ever published on the subject of operating a steam traction engine. It was sometimes cited in subsequent books, often quoted and occasionally plagiarized. The author complained of the latter when he recalled reading a letter from someone who said he did not believe in reading books on engineering, and that all he knew he had learned in the field. To prove what he knew the author of the letter had written on the subject of the slide valve. But what really happened was that the man 'copied an article word for word that I had written in the first edition of 9 Rough and Tumble.'12

Fortunately for steam fans, James H. Maggard's Rough and Tumble Engineering has just recently been republished by the Rough and Tumble Engineers Historical Association of Kinzers, Pennsylvania in honor of the 40th anniversary of the Association. Maggard's book is must reading for steam traction engineers. It is simple, absorbing and informative. There are other works that are more detailed and cover matters Maggard thought unnecessary to treat, but none will hold one's attention longer or cause one to go back to it more frequently.

In the preface Maggard tells his readers that he had not written a scientific work; instead he wrote a book intended 'for engineers of farm and traction engines, 'rough and tumble engineers', who have everything in their favor today, and tomorrow are in a mud hole.' He cautioned his readers not to conclude 'that all you are to do is read this book. It will not make an engineer of you. But read it carefully, use good judgement and common sense, do as I tell you, and my word for it, in one month, you, for all practical purposes, will be a better engineer than four-fifths of the so-called engineers today, who think what they don't know would not make much of a book.' Several years later H.R. Tolley noted this same overconfidence and chided, 'Manufacturers spend years in designing, building, and experimenting with their machines, and their catalogs and instruction books contain such information as applies to the particular machine which they accompany. A great deal of the trouble which threshermen experience is due to the fact that they do not run their machines according to the printed instructions, and in many cases when an expert is called in it is found that the operator is either not acquainted with the instructions furnished by the manufacturer or has disregarded them because he thought he knew more about the machine than did the man who built it.'13

Returning to Maggard, he assumed that his readers would know as much about engines as an ordinary water boy. If such a person read his book and concluded that it was 'no trick to run an engine,' in all probability that person was unqualified. But if he were to say 'It is no trouble to learn to run an engine,' then he was likely to become an engineer for he had recognized that the principal thing was to attend to one's own business and leave the monkey wrench in the tool box until needed. He knew that a bunch of waste in the hand was better than an engineer's license, and that common sense and a cool head were the very best tools. Most of all he understood that carelessness will get one into trouble, and to forget costs money.

Maggard advanced a few ideas not always shared by other writers. He disagreed with those who thought a boiler should be blown out under five or ten pounds of pressure. 'Now if you must wait till the boiler is cool before washing, why not let it cool with the water in it?' When the water was let out after it has cooled within the boiler then, the moment you begin to force water through it, you will see the dirty water flow out; if it had dried on the inside of the boiler while you were waiting for it to cool, you would find it very difficult to wash off.'

He was opposed to the fusible plug. He did not question the good intentions of those states that required that every engine be equipped with one. He did question, however the practice of warning engineers never to permit the water to get too low, and then to say in essence 'there is something to even make this allowable.' It was like granting a license for carelessness.

There is reason to believe that most editions of Maggard's book contained a series of questions and answers at the end. The Rough and Tumble Engineers Historical Association, Inc. edition also has a section based upon questions received from readers of previous editions. This edition has a brief but very handy index.

Judging from citations in the literature and the fact that it went through at least ten editions, William Boss's Instructions for Traction and Stationary Engineers must be ranked with Maggard's as one of the most influential publications in the 14 area of steam traction engineering. It provided instructions, references, useful tables and rules and the usual section on questions and answers for those seeking to pass an examination in order to obtain a license.

Besides publishing his book on steam traction engineering, Boss was granted 17 patents. Among these were a machine for planting a predetermined number of seeds over a row of given length, a pot thresher for measuring experimental yields and a germinating machine for controlling temperature and humidity.15

The first few decades of the twentieth century witnessed the release of many more pertinent publications, some of which are still available to steam buffs and threshermen. For example, in 1916 S.R. Eighinger and Mancius Smedes Hutton published Steam Traction Engineering.16 The authors divided their book into seven chapters that ranged over the usual subject matter. But there were specifics on which they differed from other writers. They warned against the all too common practice of screwing down the safety valve in order to obtain additional power and suggested that it was sometimes advisable to have two safety valves, one set to blow off at the designated pressure and the other set for three to five pounds higher. Another item of difference was a recommended 'blow off valve' which would rid the boiler of the scum and foam that rises to the surface when using some kinds of water. This valve could be installed at the same height as the working level of the water in the boiler and opened for a few moments several times each day.

This book is at least three times as long as Maggard's but it is doubtful that one could find a more detailed description of engine parts, sources of possible difficulties and breakdowns and longer lists of possible solutions to these.

During World War II the United States Department of Agriculture, voicing a concern for the waste of grain through ineffective operation of threshing machinery, put out H.R. Tolley's The Efficient Operation of Threshing Machines.17 The loss of grain, while not a serious problem for the individual farmer, was a matter of millions of bushels to the nation as a whole and to the nations that were in need of food to ward off famine. It was pointed out that even the waste of a bushel a set would be an enormous loss. No doubt, on the average, more than a bushel a set was lost as farmers often complained about the grain they thought went into the straw stack.18 Tolley's little Bulletin of about 15 pages could have been obtained at the time through any county agent's office or by writing to one's congressman. It covered such subjects as power and speed of separators, belts and pulleys, journals and boxes, second hand machines, the cylinder and concaves, feeding, cleaning the grain and finishing up the job. Perhaps the most interesting of these is the one on second hand machinery.

A second hand machine could be purchased for a small fraction of a new one and it was often capable of considerable work, but it probably would need to be gone over very carefully and put into condition if it were to do good work, as a thresher-man who disposed of his old machine probably had a good reason for doing so. Tolley urged those who purchased a second hand machine to obtain a manual on its operation from the seller or manufacturer, as second hand machines sometimes gave trouble simply because the owner had no representative of the manufacturer to explain its workings or to instruct him in its operation.

Just as the United States Department of Agriculture published material on threshing machines, so did the commercial publishing houses. Two examples will make the point. In 1919 Farm Knowledge, a several volume reference work came out. In volume 3, Farm Implements and Construction, there is a chapter on steam engines. But it is the editor's note that precedes this chapter that is worthy of notice from an historical standpoint. He claimed that by 1919 the most extensive use of steam on the American farm 'is probably in connection with heating greenhouses and the washing and sterilization of d airy utensils, etc.' He further observed that although the steam engine still had its place the lighter and more 'easily fed' internal combustion tractor had stepped in and largely replaced steam.19

A second publication, Farm Equipment for Mechanical Power provided a splendid discussion of the function and operation of the threshing machine as well as a brief set of recommendations for threshing peas and beans. A special feature of this book is its numerous tables and illustrations.20

If the thresherman ignored such books, or found them not to his liking, or even if he mastered their contents, he still might wish to improve himself by other means, such as enrolling in a school.

J.I.Case sponsored a school for engineers in several locations and the International Correspondence School in Scranton, Pennsylvania reportedly had over a thousand students enrolled in 1900 alone. It is unlikely, however, that the majority of these were threshermen. William Boss of the University of Minnesota requested that he be allowed to offer a course in power machinery, including a unit on farm engines, in 1894. Some have claimed that this was the beginning of such courses. In the same year J.I. Case invited men to observe and operate engines at its plant. Within two years Ohio State University placed a special course on steam traction engines in its curriculum.

The American Thresherman for August 1906 described a School of Traction Engineering that had been offered in June of that year in the Manufacturers' Building on the Minnesota State Fair Grounds in St. Paul. The idea of a school had originated with Professor D.D. Mayne, Principal of the Minnesota School of Agriculture, who corresponded with more than a dozen builders of threshing machinery, to obtain their support and the promise of engines for use in the school. He then contacted The American Thresherman asking for its endorsement. The magazine agreed to put up $1,000, print the prospectus and provide the stationery, postage and all other incidental expenses. William Boss was appointed chief lecturer and P.S. Rose served as the instructor of steam and gasoline engineering. H.B. White of the Minnesota School of Agriculture was placed in charge of practice work while J.B. Parker of The American Thresherman lectured on the cost, operation and management of a threshing outfit.

Classes convened at eight o'clock each morning and consisted of lectures, demonstrations, discussions and quizzes. Theoretical work was followed by 'taking certain features of the engine and learning the causes and effects of steam, what its actions would be under certain conditions, and how the best results might be obtained and the engine be made to last longer than if handled improperly.' The students set tubes in boilers, babbitted boxes and laced belts. Prizes were awarded for lining up an engine properly in the least amount of time.

Machinery was supplied by Nichols and Shepard Company, Northwest Thresher Company, J.I. Case Threshing Machine Company, Advance Thresher Company, Minneapolis Threshing Machine Company, Reeves & Co., A.D. Baker Company, Hart-Parr, International Harvester Company, Charles A. Stickney Co. and Fairbanks Morris. The last four supplied gasoline engines.

Nearly two hundred students came from eighteen states and Canada. Except for a few boys in their teens, most were between twenty and thirty years of age. B.B. Clarke declared the school a huge success, and proclaimed with his usual exuberance that 'The School of Traction Engineering is the beginning of a new epoch in machinery history. It will spread over the world; no power on earth can prevent its spread.'

Professor P.S. Rose also opened a school in conjunction with J.B. Parker of The American Thresherman. His was located at the North Dakota Agricultural College at Fargo. In 1908 the curriculum was comprised of four courses: steam traction engineering; gasoline traction engineering; stationary engineering steam and gasoline; and business methods for threshermen. Students were advised to confine themselves to two courses.

The May 1908 issue of The American Thresherman carried a three-quarter page ad that declared that Fargo, located in the heart of the grain belt of the world, was most favorably situated for a school. It had not a single saloon! This might have been a comfort to wives and mothers but it is doubtful that it was a drawing card. The registration fee was $15.00 and room and board started at $3.50 per week. These figures seem remarkably low to those of us living in the early 1990's, but then a dollar a day and board was not uncommon. A graduate of Rose's school of the previous summer could boast that he had been hired at $6.50 per day. An ability to read and write were required but no entrance examination was administered. Diplomas were issued to all graduates.

The American Thresherman for August, 1908 acclaimed the Rose School to have been a success. Two hundred seventy students from 16 states and Canada had attended from June 8 through July 3. This was eighty more than had attended during the previous year. A Minnesota boiler inspector exclaimed that 'if every engineer would take such a course the number of accidents would be fewer and loss of life and property caused by boiler explosions greatly reduced.'

With the arrival of Dr. Edward Rumely, the M. Rumely Company soon founded the Indiana School of Tractioneering at La Porte, Indiana. The curriculum of this school was concentrated on oil and gas engines, thus reflecting changes that were coming about in farm power and the direction that the company was taking.

An ad in the Rumely Power Seed and Soil for September 1912 read in part: 'Earn $65 to $200 per month. The I.S.T. will teach you how-to operate and expert all types of gas engines, and we will place you in a paying position if you like. The Indiana School of Tractioneering will place 300 men between now and April 1st. One manufacturing concern alone has called for more than 100 experts. We have arranged, nevertheless, so that you can earn part of your expenses by work done in the Rumely shops.'

For the purpose of reaching all classes of students, I.S.T. established residence, traveling and correspondence courses. In the residence school students received four weeks of instruction in the principles of engine construction and operation, followed by three weeks of laboratory work. The laboratory was equipped with six tractors and ten stationary engines of various types. During the first term 21 students were in attendance. During the winter of 1912-13 the enrollment jumped to 93 but dropped off again to 40 in the spring.

Over 2000 students received instruction at traveling school during this same period. These courses usually lasted only a week or two, and as one might expect, practical work on tractors and stationary engines was carried on through the assistance of the Rumely Products Company, the sales arm of the Rumely firm. The article in the Rumely publication does not comment on the evening school curriculum or attendance.21

Recently the traction engine school has been resurrected by men like Chaddy Atteberry, Wayne Kennedy and Joe Fahnestock. These men have published descriptions of their efforts.22

Finally, every thresherman could join an association. These associations did not necessarily provide direct instruction on the operation of threshing rigs, but they did provide a forum where men could meet and exchange ideas and discuss matters of politics that bore upon the threshing enterprise.

Thus through the various means discussed above, anyone who wanted to become proficient in the operation of threshing machinery could do so. There was no excuse for ignorance. An ambitious student had only to follow his inclinations.

NOTES

1. Iron Men Album, January-February 1990, p. 22.

2. Iron Men Album, November-December 1978, p. 8.

3. Iron Men Album, January-February 1972, p. 9.

4. Engineers and Engines, February-March 1985, p. 10.

5. Letter postmarked February 5, 1990. John Steinkuhl was selected for the Old Thresher Award by the Midwest Old Threshers, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa in 1988. John wrote as follows: 'No license was required for farmers to run an engine for threshing, just assurance of liability insurance. However, an operator's license to run a steam engine was required in Indiana in coal mining operations. I never ran the separator much at threshing time, but when starting, I did help put belts on and line it up. We seldom had a breakdown because every spring and fall we oiled and checked. To operate a steam engine there are safety measures I highly recommend, especially to keep the boiler from blowing up. Never build a fire in the engine until water level is checked. Be sure the valves on the water glass are open. All oilers are filled and in working condition. Between threshings, every few weeks, boiler needs washing out with clean water, due to it getting stagnant. When operating, never start running the engine until the separator man gives you the signal, then alert the crew by tooting the whistle twice.'

6. James H. Stephenson, Farm Engines and How to Run Them: The Science of Successful Threshing. Chicago: Frederick J. Drake & Company, 1903.

7. 'Traction Engine Troubles.' Madison, Wisconsin: The American Thresherman, 1909.

8. 'Traction Engine Troubles.' Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Iron Men Album, 1960.

9. P.S. Rose, Steam Engine Guide. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Stemgas Publishing Company, 1982.

10. The Journal of the American Society; of Agricultural Engineers, December 1962, p. 717. I am indebted to Tom E. Bye, archivist at the North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, North Dakota State University Library, Fargo, North Dakota for supplying information on P.S. Rose.

11. G.F. Conner, Science of Threshing. St. Joseph, Michigan: The Threshermen's Review Company, 1906.

12. James H. Maggard, Rough and Tumble Engineering. Reissued in 1989 by Rough and Tumble Engineers Historical Association, Box 9, Kinzers, Pennsylvania 17535. The original went through several revisions, e.g. the 4th edition was published by Chicago Engraving Company. I was singularly unsuccessful in locating further information on the man or his book. Letters to members of the Rough and Tumble Engineers Historical Association brought no answers and the standard biographical references contained no entries for Maggard.

13. H.R. Tolley, Efficient Operation of Threshing Machines, Washington D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture Farmer's Bulletin 991, June 1918.

14. William Boss, Instructions for Traction and Stationary Engineers. Milwaukee: Olsen Publishing Company, 1906. Unfortunately this book is rather difficult to obtain. It deserves reprinting because of its historical significance.

15. Ralph E. Miller, The History of the School of Agriculture 1851-1960, pp. 28-29, 134. This reference material was supplied by the University of Minnesota, St. Paul Campus Libraries, Interlibrary Loans, 1984 Buford Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota, 55108.

16. S.R. Eighinger and Marcius Smedes Hutton, Steam Traction Engineering. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1916.

17. Tolley, op. cit.

18. 'Green Straw Piles in Kansas,' Iron Men Album, July-August 1987, p. 9.

19. Farm Knowledge (four volumes). Prepared exclusively for Sears, Roebuck and Company by Doubleday, Page and Company, 1919. Lenore Swoiskin was instrumental in locating this source. She was, in April, 1979, archivist for Sears.

20. Frank N.G. Kranich, Farm Equipment for Mechanical Power. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1923. Chapters XVIII and XXIII.

21. Knowing the driving force of Dr. Edward Rumely and his devotion to education, the involvement of the Rumely Company in the Indiana School of Tractioneering is understandable. He also established another school for boys at Interlachen near La Porte, Indiana.

22. Wayne Kennedy, 'Everything You Wanted to Know About Steam But Were Afraid to Ask!!',Iron Men Album, May-June 1986, p. 1. Also published in Engineers and Engines, June-July 1986, p. 7. Joe Fahnestock, 'Bob Zellers' College of Steam Engine Knowledge,' Engineers and Engines, June-July 1986, p. 30.