Beating Wartime Restrictions: Massey-Harris' Harvest Brigade

Let's Talk Rusty Iron

| September 2002

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    A Massey-Harris ad for the Harvest Brigade featuring the No. 21 one-man, self-propelled combine.
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    Massey-Harris ad referring to the No. 21 one-man, self-propelled combine that the firm introduced for the Harvest Brigade.
  • FC_V5_I2_Sep_2002_04-3.jpg
    Trainload of Massey-Harris No. 21 self-propelled combines for the Harvest Brigade. "General" Joe Tucker's picture is inset at the top right.

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In the previous column (“The War Effort: WWII Quotas Cut Farm Machinery Supplies”), I reported on restrictions placed on farm machinery manufacturers during World War II by the U.S. government’s War Production Board (WPB). Some of these manufacturers, who generally were a resourceful lot, tried to beat the system, though, and two efforts were notable. The first, by Henry Ford in 1942, failed; it will be the subject of a future column. The second, by Massey-Harris Inc. in 1944, proved successful, positioning the company as a very strong player in the postwar machinery market.

The 1942 grain crop in the United States and Canada broke all previous records.

In the United States, the harvest tallied more than 3 billion bushels of corn and close to a billion bushels of wheat; in Canada, it amounted to more than a half billion bushels of wheat. In spite of these huge harvests, millions of the world’s people faced starvation because of the war’s devastation, and rationing of most food items was imposed in both countries.

The U.S. War Food Administration set a 1944 goal of 1 billion bushels of wheat; even though thousands of farmers were serving in the Armed Forces and existing harvesting machines were worn out. Implement makers begged the War Production Board for a larger share of scarce raw materials so that badly needed new harvesting machines could be built, but the WPB couldn’t promise much help. The same situation existed in Canada.

Joe Tucker, vice president and sales manager of Massey-Harris in the United States, saw both a solution to the problem and an opportunity for his company. Tucker had served on the WPBs of both the United States and Canada, and was familiar with the workings and politics of both bodies.

Massey-Harris No. 21 self-propelled combine

On the eve of World War II, in spite of pressing war work, Massey-Harris rushed its famous No. 21 one-man, self-propelled (SP) combine into production. In early 1944, Tucker told the WPB that the No. 21 could, using the same amount of scarce raw material, harvest more grain than any other machine then being built. He also claimed that if he was permitted to build 500 extra machines, he could harvest at least 15 million bushels of grain from more than 1 million acres while releasing some 1,000 tractors for other work and saving 500,000 gallons of fuel.



Tucker also contended that the self-propelled 12-foot and 14-foot machines would save the 500,000 bushels typically lost when tractors drawing combines crushed grain-heavy stalks while opening up fields. Convinced, the board granted enough materials to Tucker to build 500 more combines than called for in Massey’s 1944 quota limit. Sales of the extra 500 self-propelled machines were restricted to custom operators who agreed to take delivery at the southern edge of the grain belt and to harvest at least 2,000 acres each.

Tucker planned the harvest like a military operation. The May 1944 issue of Farm Journal said, “Organized like an army, these men will slash their way from southern Oklahoma to Canada. ‘Scouts’ will precede them and line up the work. Technical and supply ‘sergeants’ will be along to help keep machines in repair. Combine operators will be ‘lieutenants,’ and there will be a full complement of ‘captains,’ ‘majors,’ ‘colonels’ and a ‘general.’ When the campaign is over, there will even be ‘decorations,’ in the form of War Bonds, for those who cut the most grain.”



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