The Many Uses of Farm Buildings

Lumberyards offered plans, advice for farm buildings.

| May 2014

  • Front cover of a 96-page book on farm building plans provided by Charles Foulke Lumber Co.
    Illustration courtesy George Wanamaker
  • This dairy barn has a high roof to allow for large haymow. It had 24 stalls and a haymow with a capacity of 75 tons of loose hay.
    Illustration courtesy George Wanamaker
  • This poultry house, with a feeder at the left end, had a capacity of 150 chickens.
    Illustration courtesy George Wanamaker
  • An implement shed with a plow in the left bay and a wagon in the center bay.
    Illustration courtesy George Wanamaker
  • Dimensions, capacities, floor plan, cross-section and general description of a horse barn. Three sizes were given with nine to 17 stalls and a mow with a capacity of 30 to 60 tons.
    Illustration courtesy George Wanamaker
  • This page shows a picture of a barn including its dimensions, capacities, floor plan, cross-section and general description. In its largest version, this barn would accommodate 20 cows, 11 horses, 2,800 bushels of small grain and 74 tons of loose hay.
    Illustration courtesy George Wanamaker
  • This cattle barn could hold a 40-cow herd and 80 tons of loose hay.
    Illustration courtesy George Wanamaker
  • Combination icehouse and milk house. The walls were lined with sawdust for insulation. It had a capacity of 33 tons of ice. Ice melt was channeled to the milk cooling vat for that purpose.
    Illustration courtesy George Wanamaker

The farm building has existed practically as long as farming. For centuries, buildings were used to protect grain and fodder until needed, and to protect farm animals, keeping them safe from the elements (and theft). A cow, for instance, will produce healthier offspring and more milk if shelter from inclement weather is provided.

Early farm buildings were built of earth, stone and wood. At first, generic structures were used for many purposes. As time passed, buildings were designed and built for specific purposes. By the late 1800s and early 1900s structures had become very specialized. There were barns for horses, barns for cows, dairy barns, sheep barns, pig houses, chicken coops, granaries, corn cribs, equipment sheds, creameries, smoke houses and ice houses. Generally, a farm would have several different structures from that list.

The barn was the building most closely associated with the farm. A typical general purpose barn provided space for cattle and horses, possibly some grain storage, feeding and birthing on the ground floor. The second floor consisted of a large open space for storage of large amounts of loose hay (for feed) and/or straw (for bedding).

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, these structures were principally made of wood. Some were built on site, with the builder cutting and assembling every board there. Materials for others were precut in a factory or lumberyard, shipped by rail and/or wagon and assembled onsite. The latter method allowed for much quicker assembly at the farm.



Early marketing effort

Today, there is a movement back to the ideas of the past. We are designing buildings with a single design that can be used for varied purposes. Typically rectangular, these buildings are constructed of poles and sheet metal. They have a large open space that can be used for implement storage, hay storage, grain and seed storage, feeding purposes, workshop areas, milking and animal protection from the elements. Interiors are often custom designed for specific uses.

In 1930 this was not the case. A 96-page book, Our Latest Book of Practical Farm Buildings, contained plans for eight general barns, four dairy barns, four cattle barns, two sheep barns, one horse barn and 25 miscellaneous designs. The book included plans for hay sheds, bull pens, manure pits, highway markets, feeding sheds, hog houses (12 styles), movable hog houses (12 styles), poultry houses (18 styles), granaries and corn cribs (16 styles), scale houses, dairy houses, smoke houses, implement shed, creamery, cheese factory, ice house, farm shop and numerous feed bunks.