IN QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Zwicker's Revised Practical Instructor


| November/December 1996



THE INDICATOR.

The steam engine indicator is an instrument for showing the pressure of steam in the cylinder at all points of the stroke, or for producing actual diagrams. The indicator consists of a small cylinder accurately bored out, and fitted with a piston, capable of working in the (indicator) cylinder with little or no friction, and yet be practically steam-tight. The piston has an area of just of a square inch, and its motion in the cylinder is 25/32 of an inch.

The piston-rod is connected to a pair of light levers, so linked together that a pencil carried at the center of the link moves in nearly a straight line through a maximum distance of 31/8 inches. A spiral spring placed in the cylinder above the piston, and of a strength proportioned to the steam pressure, resists the motion of the piston; and the elasticity of this spring is such that each pound of pressure on the piston causes the pencil to move a certain fractional part of an inch. The pencil in this case is made of a piece of pointed brass wire, which retains its sharpness for a considerable time, and yet makes a well-defined line upon the prepared paper generally used with the indicator.

The paper is wound around the drum, which has a diameter of 2 inches, and is capable of a semi-rotary motion upon its axis to such an extent that the extreme length of diagram may be 5 inches. Motion is given to the drum in one direction, during the forward stroke of the engine, by means of a cord connected indirectly to the cross-head of the engine, and the drum is brought back again during the return stroke of the engine by the action of a coiled spring at its base.

The conical stem of the instrument permits it to be turned around and fixed in any desired position, and the guide-pulleys attached to the instrument under the paper drum may also be moved around so as to bring the cord upon the drum-pulley from any convenient direction.

The upper side of the piston is open to the atmosphere; the lower side may, by means of a stop-cock, be put into communication either with the atmosphere or with the engine cylinder.

When both sides of the piston are pressed upon by the atmosphere, the pencil, on being brought into contact with the moving paper, describes the atmospheric line. When the lower side of the piston is in communication with the engine cylinder, the position of the pencil is determined by the pressure of the steam existing in the cylinder; and on the pencil being pressed against the paper during a complete double stroke of the engine, the entire indicator diagram is described.