The Missing Link in Tractor Development

Tracking the elusive auto tractor.

| November 2005

  • 1913PatentDrawing.jpg
    A 1913 patent drawing of the auto tractor. Inventor Walter Zimmerman filed an earlier patent in 1911. Patents for both designs were granted in 1917, but whether auto tractors were still being produced then remains a mystery.
  • MarvelousSetofGears.jpg
    This image further defines the marvelous set of gears that made the Auto Tractor what it was. The fact that these huge gears did their work without lubrication is amazing. As cumbersome as these gears appear, they were the forerunner of gears on today’s tractors. These appear to be planetary gears: If they were not, the hub gears on the car wheels would have run the tractor in reverse.
  • AutoTractor.jpg
    This view of the Auto Tractor proves it capable of pulling a 6-bottom plow. The image also shows the belt pulley used for such jobs as operating a threshing machine or sawmill. Just in front of the pulley is a second radiator, designed to provide extra water to keep the car engine cool while operating at slow speeds.

  • 1913PatentDrawing.jpg
  • MarvelousSetofGears.jpg
  • AutoTractor.jpg

"The auto tractor consists of a steel frame upon which the automobile is carried and to which it is firmly held when in operation. The frame is carried on two traction wheels 6 feet in diameter. Connecting the two big wheels is a steel axle upon which is mounted the gearing, which transmits the power from automobile to tractor wheels.

"The belt attachment for power work is mounted on the rear end and put in operation by means of gears controlled by feather keys. A radiator, water supply tank, centrifugal circulating pump and connections are supplied to ensure the cool running of the automobile engine under all conditions.

"In order to attach the automobile to the tractor, the car is backed up with the rear wheels straddling the tractor frame until the saddles strike the inclined top of the frame. The automobile is then pulled back into place with its own power by means of ropes fastened to the hub gears which act as winding drums."

-The Pacific Homestead, Salem, Ore., 1911.

A search for a missing link in tractor evolution is not quite the same as the archaeologist's search for the missing link between the monkey and man. But the search for the missing link between the early single-cylinder tractor and the modern high horsepower tractor retains considerable interest for me.

That quest caught fire when I discovered the Auto Tractor. As a lifelong journalist who's specialized in farming and farmer-invented technology, I was amazed by the contraption, a mind-boggling, Rube Goldberg-type machine. I'd never seen anything quite like it, nor had I ever heard of it. Yet as cumbersome and ungainly as the unit appeared, it could be something special. I was struck by the possibility this was one of the first - if not the first - embodiments of the modern farm tractor.

The Auto Tractor, as described in company literature, "is an attachment for any automobile and is so designed that when attached to the automobile, the road speed of the latter is decreased and the pulling power increased about 14 times. This ingenious machine attaches to any standard automobile, making it possible to plow, disc, harrow, sow, harvest and thresh and do other work, using the automobile engine and transmission to furnish the power, and the Auto Tractor to convert this power, so that it is available for use on the farm."

Literature on the Auto Tractor placed it as entering the farm scene in about 1911. Up to that time, farm tractors were huge, ponderous affairs, usually powered by an engine with a single large cylinder. Hart-Parrs and OilPulls come to mind. At the same time, C.L. Best of California had made the move that would make him the father of the Caterpillar, but the result was a much heavier tractor than most farmers would want.



Other combinations of an automobile and a set of tracks existed, but again, none of these appeared to be the forerunner of the popular-sized tractor ultimately accepted by the American farmer.

The Auto Tractor, on the other hand, did have ponderous drive wheels, but the engine, drive wheels and gearing had a great deal in common with today's tractor. Here was the multi-cylinder automobile engine providing up to 40 hp. Also, the Auto Tractor had the necessary gearing to convert that horsepower to turning traction wheels with enough ground grip to pull 6-bottom plows. The gears were admittedly huge and non-lubricated, but they existed as a functioning component nonetheless.



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