The International 460 and the Evolution of Red Tractors

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The Farmall 460 featured a six-cylinder engine previously used in IH crawlers, as well as a host of new features and improvements, including the new square styling.
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The Farmall 560 introduced new hydraulic systems designed to improve field performance. These included Tel-A-Depth linkages to control implement depth, several choices of hydraulic pumps, and one, two, or three connection valves. From the Jerry Mez tractor collection.
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The International 660 was the heaviest in the 60 line. Other than higher horsepower, the machine was very similar to the 560. This LP version is equipped with unique IH wheel weights. From the Huber Brothers tractor collection.
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"Red Tractors 1958-2013" (Octane Press, 2013) is author Lee Klancher's meticulously researched look at the history of International Harvester Company, a landmark American company that defined agricultural business for a century.

Red Tractors 1958-2013 (Octane Press, 2013) is an authoritative and unparalleled look at the tractors built by International Harvester Company and Case IH. Author Lee Klancher leads a research team that has collected more than 380 pages and 700 images, documenting these beloved machines built in America and abroad. In this multi-part series, Farm Collector shares the first chapter of Red Tractor, “1958-1959 The Hinsdale Connection”. Continuing from The Next Generation of Red Tractors: The 40 and 60 Series, this excerpt highlights the Farmall International 460, Farmall 560, and International 660.

You can purchase this book from the Farm Collector store: Red Tractors 1958-2013.

International 460

The Farmall 460 was the smallest of the six-cylinder tractors in the new line, rated for four plows. It was available in gasoline, diesel, LP, kerosene, and distillate versions. The 460 replaced the Farmall 350, but in addition to a six-cylinder engine it had redesigned sheet metal and very different hydraulics. The diesel had a direct-start system and was built by IH, unlike the 350’s Continental direct-start diesel or other IHC start-on-gas diesels. The 460 suffered through the differential recall issues, and the diesel had a reputation for being hard to start on cold days.

The 460 Cotton Harvester was equipped with the gear drive higher drop housing (as opposed to the High Clear’s chain drive) and was usually shipped with the platform to allow reverse operation. The tractor was also equipped with a high single front wheel for cotton-picker operation, although usually another front-axle operation was available for normal use when not in the cotton field. IH offered factory-built cotton-harvester tractors as well as conversion packages.

The Farmall 460 was also available in a High Clear version for sugarcane and other specialty growers, and for use by other manufacturers as a platform for other machinery. The 460 showed up in a lot of bean pickers and blacktop pavers. The 460 High Clear had chain-driven final drives and a high-arch front axle.

The International 460 Utility replaced the 350 Utility, sharing the same six-cylinder engine and powertrain as the Farmall 460. The tractor’s layout made it the base of several optional models, proved popular as a loader tractor, and paved the way for more popular higher-power utility models. The Utility was available with a diesel or carbureted engine, the latter available in gasoline, LP, kerosene, and distillate versions. IH advertised that the International 460 weighed 1,000 pounds more than its competition, which obviated the need for additional weights and gave it better traction performance.

The International 460 served as the base for the 460 Grove, which was equipped with underslung exhaust and shields to move branches out of the way.

The International 460 High Utility featured a row-crop adjustable rear axle and wheels, and a higher-clearance front axle to give a low top height with under-tractor clearance. This was good for crops such as shade tobacco and ginseng, which had a canopy over the top of the crop but still required row cultivation (or clear beds) underneath the tractor.

The 460 Utility also served as a base for a Wheat Land version that featured wider fenders to protect operators from blowing dust, as well as other features that were optional on the regular utility but standard on the Wheat Land model. International advertised that, unlike most utilities, the 460 platform was also designed for heavy traction and that the 460 Wheat Land was up to the task of pulling large implements.

The 460 Industrial was badged and grilled differently for sale through IH’s industrial dealership network. Standard color for most of the production run was yellow, although customers could have the tractors with any color for extra cost.

Farmall 560

The Farmall 560 replaced the Farmall 450. The 560 featured a new six-cylinder engine and other changes consistent with the new 40 and 60 series line. The 560 was available with gasoline (including kerosene and distillate subvariants), LP, and diesel engines. The diesel was now a direct start, instead of the IH-built start-on-gas diesel used in the 450. Maximum drawbar horsepower on the gasoline version was 58.36, but the two-hour rating was 44.83.

The High Clear 560 used drop rear-axle housings and chain drive similar to the 450, as well as different front axles, wheel, and tire equipment. The tractors were used in sugarcane-growing areas, with vegetable crops that required higher-clearance tractors, and in other similar specialty farming.

The Farmall 560 Cotton Harvester variant had gear-drive extended final housing and a single high front wheel, as well as a platform for reverse running with a mounted two-row cotton picker. Users could obtain a package to convert the tractor to a front-running normal-height tractor for the rest of the year when not under a picker. Cotton-picker tractors could be ordered from the factory, or an existing tractor could be converted.

The International 560 used the same engine selection and mostly the same driveline as the Farmall 560 in a standard tractor layout. The full range of engine choices was available along with large rear tires giving more drawbar pull than the Farmall. IH’s diesel engine was direct-start, where the standard engine choice for the Deere 830 had a pony motor for starting the diesel and still cost more per horsepower than the International.

International 660

The International 660 was essentially the same tractor as the International 560, revved up to give considerably more horsepower. A standard tractor intended for heavy tillage, the 660 came up against many of the same problems with transmission longevity as the 460 and 560 family. After the problems were worked out, the tractor proved reliable in wheat fields, often equipped with options such as a hand clutch and foot pedal Torque Amplifier to allow standing while operating. FC

Read more from Red Tractors 1958-2013 in:

• International Harvester Company Reveals Return of the Large Tractor at Burr Ridge Farm
• International 460 Ushers in New Era for International Harvester Company
• The Next Generation of Red Tractors: The 40 and 60 Series
• The Farmall M and the Red Tractors of Great Britain
• International Harvester Invests in Germany       
IHC and McCormick Deering: The Red Tractors of France

Red Tractors Down Under: International Harvester Company of Australia

Reprinted with permission from Red Tractors 1958-2013: The Authoritative Guide to International Harvester and Case-IH Farm Tractors in the Modern Era by Lee Klancher and published by Octane Press, 2013. Buy the book from our store: Red Tractors 1958-2013.

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